When used alone, the partition key uniquely identifies an item, as no two items can have the same partition key. It allows you to use the Query API to retrieve all the items for a single composite partition-sort key across a range of sort keys. Major categories in which data types fall into three major categories are - Scalar, Set, or Document. Querying DynamoDB without Primary Key. Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. This must include an equality against the hash key, and optionally one of a restricted set of conditions on the range key. Fortunately, DynamoDB has a concept of secondary indexes. DynamoDB will perform verydifferently depending on how your data is laid out and how you decide to query it. This updates the associated IAM execution role policies without needing you to perform manual IAM policy updates. However, when also defining a sort key, one or more items can have the. I recently needed to add a local secondary index to an existing DynamoDB table through CloudFormation so that I could query objects by the modified column value without scanning. Name the table CodingTips. And if you want to use other property in your table as hash key then you have no other choice but to create GSI. Design patterns: User events are stored as key-value pairs (a 1:M modeling pattern), with the user ID as the partition key and the timestamp as the sort key of the primary key. Use the KeyConditionExpression parameter to provide a specific value for the partition key. This allows Query to retrieve one item with a given partition key value and sort key value, or several items that have the same partition key value but different sort key values. In general, your DynamoDB cost and performance will be best if you restrict yourself to "gets" (key/value lookups on single items) and "queries" (conditional lookup on items that have the same partition key, but different range/sort keys). In this video, we will see how can I query DynamoDB from within a Lambda function. DynamoDB uses the partition key’s value as input to an internal hash function; the output from the hash function determine the partition where the item will be stored. This is where we take a huge break from relational databases. 3, Id is not a table column but dynamodb understands that we have a composite key with the help of @Id annotation in the Music class. Ionic 4 is an awesome framework, which currently works best with Angular 7, due to its long history of being totally dedicated to Angular, but if you prefer to use React or Vue, you can do that. This is a comprehensive 19 hour deep-dive that will give you an expert-level understanding of Amazon DynamoDB. DynamoDB is fast when used for the use-cases it was designed for. Study 77 DynamoDB flashcards from Matt L. " As you can see, the PRIMARY KEY now has more than the partition key, we have now added more elements. Add the previous Lambda code that parses the given URL parameters. Use the query method in Java to perform data retrieval operations. Amazon DynamoDB is a managed, NoSQL database platform and due to its speed, scalability and low-cost its rapidly becoming a standard product to use in web, serverless and in some cases traditional application stacks. Though it is highly performant for these use cases, DynamoDB is not a good choice for analytical queries which typically involve large range scans and complex operations such as grouping and aggregation. DocumentDB offers more flexible indexing options, such as adding or updating indexes after table creation, and it makes it easier to query data. Scalability is handled for you, and data is replicated across multiple availability zones automatically. Different from query because scan is a brute force query. on StudyBlue. Partition Key Mandatory Key-value access pattern Determines data distribution Optional Model 1:N relationships Enables rich query capabilities DynamoDB table A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A3 A4 A7 A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A6 A4 A5 A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A3 A4 A5 Sort Key Table Items 10. The drawback to using GSI are:. You can only update an entire blob at a time. Assuming that only a single partition is created, we are able to retrieve 10 items per second. In general, your DynamoDB cost and performance will be best if you restrict yourself to "gets" (key/value lookups on single items) and "queries" (conditional lookup on items that have the same partition key, but different range/sort keys). Tools such as Amazon Athena and Amazon Redshift have changed data warehouse technology, catering for a move towards interactive, real-time, analytical solutions. You can optionally narrow the scope of the Query operation by specifying a sort key value and a comparison operator in KeyConditionExpression. ♦It is used to. DynamoDB is very easy to get started with, with a table name and a partition key you are on your way to data fun. This must include an equality against the hash key, and optionally one of a restricted set of conditions on the range key. Load data into an existing table from objects stored in Amazon DynamoDB. Upon completion of this lab you will be able to:. Thus we are able to query by Id as a whole. In this section we will fully exploring building for DynamoDB using JSF Architect. Assuming that only a single partition is created, we are able to retrieve 10 items per second. Amazon DynamoDB: is a fully managed NoSQL database service that works on key-value pair and other data structure documents provided by Amazon. the matching rows. The Query operation will return all of the items from the table or index with that partition key value. WRITE THROTTLED REQUESTS: Put Throttled Requests. Items can share partition keys, but not sort keys. It supports both the key-value and document data models widely used in e-commerce, IoT, mobile and any internet scale application. AWS DynamoDB uses Partition key's value to distinguish items in a table. It is common when first using DynamoDB to try to force your existing schema into the table without recognizing how important the partition key is. Test the Lambda function with sample request data. In this section we will fully exploring building for DynamoDB using JSF Architect. In dynamodb-api, you can omit the special processing by putting # at the beginning of the word. DBMS > Amazon DynamoDB vs. DynamoDB is not easy to query if it is not queried based on the partition key. Now I want to be able to query the Tags list and for each item in the table and find which Posts have those tags. Major categories in which data types fall into three major categories are – Scalar, Set, or Document. The function used to generate partition key using RequestEnvelope. A l ocal secondary index lets you query over a single partition, as specified by the hash key value in the query. These developers will now find LSI to be useful and familiar, as it enables them to index non-primary key attributes and quickly query records within a hash partition. Partition key and sort key- It is referred to as a composite primary key, this type of key is composed of two attributes. This sets the Primary Key to be named task_id and to have a Partition Key only by defining the keyType to HASH, then we set the type of our key, in this case, is an integer so we set as ScalarAttributeType. A partition is a physical space where data is stored. Open the AWS console and navigate to the DynamoDB section. Your query needs to always include the partition key (and optionally the sort key), so. DynamoDB provides limited querying and sorting capability via local and global secondary indexes. While these are the headline reasons that people make the choice of Apache Cassandra over DynamoDB, there are also many advantages at the detailed functional level such as: DynamoDB’s capacity is limited by partition with a maximum of 1,000 write capacity units and 3,000 read capacity units per partition. 3, Id is not a table column but dynamodb understands that we have a composite key with the help of @Id annotation in the Music class. Amazon DynamoDB is a managed, NoSQL database platform and due to its speed, scalability and low-cost its rapidly becoming a standard product to use in web, serverless and in some cases traditional application stacks. Votes Table. Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed key-value database service that delivers reliable performance on all scales. The hottest of keys. Task 1: Create a New Table. Filters can be used to query the data but that involves scan and as the data grows it starts becoming costly both in terms of money and time. Living with DynamoDB from Amazon (Part 4) it allows us to query for all resource statistics associated with a group within a time range. A user performs the request using the Authorization header with an access token. Databases in the past few years have evolved into fully managed cloud services. Consider the following situation. The Query operation will return all of the items. Athena is serverless, so there is no infrastructure to manage, and we pay only for the queries that we run. The function used to generate partition key using RequestEnvelope. DynamoDB is schemaless so with time the data evolve in multiple. A table in DynamoDB is a collection of items, and each item is a collection of attributes. After a point of time, we put 10 more items into the table. Query Dynamodb Table based on sort key. Global secondary indexes allow you to efficiently query over the whole DynamoDB table, not just within a partition as local secondary indexes, using any attributes (columns), even as the DynamoDB table horizontally scales to accommodate your needs. First, a path parameter, the date, which is the primary partition key for the DynamoDB table. js and DynamoDB At the end of this article you will know the overall anatomy of a skill, how to build the code that powers it, how to configure it in AWS, and how to immediately install it on your own Echo device. RevisionField string // If set, call this function on queries that we cannot execute at all (for // example, a query with an OrderBy clause that lacks an equality filter on a // partition key). The Big Picture. Using these features, Rockset continuously ingests data from DynamoDB in two steps:. You can put iterable of any objects into the stream, UUID as partition key will be generated for each record, each object will be serialized to JSON: 5: You can put any object into the stream with predefined partition key, if the name of the argument does not contain word parition then @PartitionKey annotation must to be used. DynamoDB is very easy to get started with, with a table name and a partition key you are on your way to data fun. Execute the following queries against the Reply table. " In this case, partition keys do not have to be unique; they are paired. A simple primary key is also known as the Partition key, this is basically a single attribute. This is a comprehensive 19 hour deep-dive that will give you an expert-level understanding of Amazon DynamoDB. By having the customer and order data in a single table, I can construct queries that return all the data I need with a single interaction with DynamoDB, speeding up the performance of my application. Car Details table with Brand name and Model number as a composite primary key. In dynamodb-api, you can omit the special processing by putting # at the beginning of the word. It goes without saying that the query feature is more efficient, but the scan feature is equally useful for fuzzy searches or search by attributes, without having to deal with the partition key. The function used to generate partition key using RequestEnvelope. Global secondary indexes allow you to efficiently query over the whole DynamoDB table, not just within a partition as local secondary indexes, using any attributes (columns), even as the DynamoDB table horizontally scales to accommodate your needs. Choosing the right partition key is an important step in the design and building of scalable and reliable applications on top of DynamoDB. Fortunately, DynamoDB has a concept of secondary indexes. This is because movies need to be able to query songs through movie_id, and in DynamoDB, it's possible to query through either the partition key or indexes. An introduction to DynamoDB. View all Amazon DynamoDB - From Beginner to Pro discussions. Step-by-Step Guide to Amazon DynamoDB for. But because hash keys always map to a single virtual node in a partition, a large set of range keys per hash key can lead to hot-key problems. Query DynamoDB Items with Node. DynamoDB uses the partition key value as input to an internal hash function. DynamoDB applies the first attribute to a hash function, and stores items with the. (This would double our DynamoDB costs and halve our worst-case Lambda costs, for a total recurring cost increase of 26%. Amazon DynamoDB Document or Key-Value Scales to Any Workload Fully Managed NoSQL Access Control Event-Driven Programming Fast and Consistent Table Items Attributes Partition Key Sort Key • Local Secondary Index • Global Secondary Index “Amazon DynamoDB is a nonrelational database that delivers reliable performance at any scale. AWS DynamoDB facts and summaries, AWS DynamoDB Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump. The Big Picture. Partition Key and Sort Key – A composite primary key, composed of two attributes. So trying to implement the functionality as designed by the original code which used SQL ran into the ground quite quickly. The partition key determines the partition that an item hashes to--more on partitioning below--so an ideal partition key has a uniform distribution over its range. Merging Query Results from Multiple Shards : When a query returns multiple data objects from multiple shards, the query coordinator in the database must somehow merge the results and return. DynamoDB({apiVersion : 'latest. Amazon DynamoDB テーブル設計 Range Key以外でのQuery Hash Keyを超えたQuery + + – Hash+Range Key – Time Based Partition Table. A table is configured with the ‘partition key’ as a component of its primary key. Creating the DynamoDb table To store the data in DynamoDB we need to create a table. A global secondary index is very helpful when you need to query your data without primary key. That's really the end of the story. The data ingested by the modeler is stored locally in memory as a virtual table allowing complex data models to be easily constructed from multiple data sources and validated without requiring resources to be. That means increasing the RCU (we are doing too many query operations) will probably not. However, when also defining a sort key, one or more items can have the. On quick inspection, DynamoDB's data model is quite simple. Remember when using both hash and range keys, the primary key IS both the hash and range, however the range can be. Indexes usually offer a crucial performance boost because they prevent you from from CRYPTOGRAP 100 at Institute of Cryptography, Communication, and informatics. The first attribute is the partition key, and the second attribute is the sort key. For example, if your range key was the date, you cannot query with just two dates, you MUST also specify the hash key. " In this case, partition keys do not have to be unique; they are paired. Introducing the 3 laws of DynamoDB implementations and your ultimate guide to the Amazon WynamoDB service. It allows you to use the Query API to retrieve all the items for a single composite partition-sort key across a range of sort keys. You can do this by adding a random element. Change in the table throughput results in creation or deletion of partitions. KEYS_ONLY: The record includes only the partition key and sort key (if applicable) for a changed Item. The Query operation in Amazon DynamoDB finds items based on primary key values. WE can use the query method to retrieve data from a table. I should qualify this. The term originates from Dynamo, a highly accessible key-value store established in response to Amazon's e-commerce holiday outages in 2004. In an LSI, a range key is mandatory, while for a GSI you can have either a hash key or a hash+range key. Working with Queries in DynamoDB. DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database that supports both document and key-value store models. In AWS DynamoDB, tables, items, and attributes are the core components that you work with them. The remaining items will all be classified as data type string. Design patterns: User events are stored as key-value pairs (a 1:M modeling pattern), with the user ID as the partition key and the timestamp as the sort key of the primary key. DynamoDB) - Optional. The partition key is a table's primary key and consists of a single attribute. Microsoft has generated a lot of buzz since the launch of CosmosDB. The term "hash attribute" derives from the DynamoDB usage of an internal hash function to evenly distribute data items across partitions, based on their partition key values. Indexing comes into the picture if you want to fetch the data of attributes other than the primary key. Does Amazon Dynamodb Support Conditional Operations? Answer :. In Illustration 1: Create a table in DynamoDB, the PatientData table is created with the data UUID as the Partition Key. However, the meaning of partition is different in Cassandra and DynamoDB. Add the previous Lambda code that parses the given URL parameters. A global secondary index lets you query over the entire table, across all partitions. DynamoDB provides fast access to items in a table by specifying primary key values. Use the KeyConditionExpression parameter to provide a specific value for the partition key. With the DynamoDB DocumentClient: to query for a number of items, you use query; to get a single item, you use get; So, use query and use the KeyConditionExpression parameter to provide a specific value for the partition key. In this lesson, we'll discuss the two types of secondary indexes, and we'll cover some basic rules for working with secondary indexes. Example: Query and Scan in DynamoDB Using the AWS SDK for. Scan - scan through the table and returns all items (paginated) Query - search for a specific item (partition key) or set of items (partition key and sort key) GSI (Global Secondary Index) Can be created at any time. Compound (aka composite) key. Although DynamoDB is a cloud service and run by AWS engineers, it doesn’t excuse poor architecture decisions. Using sort keys to extend data retrieval options. It does not have a sort key as part of its primary key. A primary key can also feature a second attribute, which DynamoDB calls the table’s “sort key. You can create and query the GSI without the partition key of the main table. com as part of the Amazon Web Services portfolio. DynamoDB uses the partition key value as input to an internal hash function. If the sort key doesn't appear in every table item, the index is said to be sparse. Words reserved in DynamoDB can not be used without special processing. Hadoop-AWS module: Integration with Amazon Web Services. With DynamoDB, you can create database tables that can store and retrieve any amount of data, and serve any level of request traffic. Amazon's review of big data solutions. Global secondary index in DynamoDb - An index with a partition key and a sort key that can be different from the base table. Timehop’s data is in time-series, so for us a range key is a necessity. @fellowferdi unsplash. So trying to implement the functionality as designed by the original code which used SQL ran into the ground quite quickly. Indexing comes into the picture if you want to fetch the data of attributes other than the primary key. Votes Table. A global secondary index lets you query over the entire table, across all partitions. This means if you want to query by date (you'll want to use msec since epoch), then all the items you want to retrieve in a single query must have the same Hash (partition key). Data processing. You can then create a migration for the Movie and Song models according to the schema structure explained. DynamoDB supports scan operations over one or more items and also captures table activity using DynamoDB Streams. Storage may also support storing key. If the chosen partition key for your table or index simply does not result in a uniform access pattern, then you may consider making a new table that is designed with throttling in mind. NET Core Web API with an endpoint that when hit, will create us a DynamoDB Table. Under the hood, cache data in Hazelcast is stored as eventually consistent with AWS DynamoDB by receiving mutation events (ordered by the shard/partition) from AWS DynamoDB Streams. Use the KeyConditionExpression parameter to provide a specific value for the partition key. Amazon DynamoDB テーブル設計 Range Key以外でのQuery Hash Keyを超えたQuery + + – Hash+Range Key – Time Based Partition Table. The first attribute is the partition key, and the second attribute is the sort key. Scalability is handled for you, and data is replicated across multiple availability zones automatically. DynamoDB is schemaless so with time the data evolve in multiple. If the sort key doesn't appear in every table item, the index is said to be sparse. Assuming that only a single partition is created, we are able to retrieve 10 items per second. The first attribute is the partition key, and the second attribute is the sort key. DynamoDB is not easy to query if it is not queried based on the partition key. In AWS DynamoDB, tables, items, and attributes are the core components that you work with them. 5 Query by Id. The function accepts two inputs. DynamoDB is a key-value store with added support for JSON to provide document-like data structures that better match with objects in application code. I call them “Session” and “Timestamp”. WE can use the query method to retrieve data from a table. Design patterns: User events are stored as key-value pairs (a 1:M modeling pattern), with the user ID as the partition key and the timestamp as the sort key of the primary key. In DynamoDB, the total provisioned IOPS is evenly divided across all the partitions. Amazon DynamoDB provides the following mechanisms for searching without the shard key: secondary indexes, non-indexed (scan). In Illustration 1: Create a table in DynamoDB, the PatientData table is created with the data UUID as the Partition Key. Example: Query and Scan in DynamoDB Using the AWS SDK for. An item or record cannot exceed 400KB. A single attribute partition primary key could be, for example, ^UserID _. That's really the end of the story. In AWS DynamoDB, tables, items, and attributes are the core components that you work with them. The output from this function determines the partition in which the data will be stored. Querying DynamoDB without Primary Key. Amazon DynamoDB is a fast and flexible NoSQL database service for any scale. Namely, how to create your own indexes to support more advanced queries. Unless I'm misunderstanding your question, you are not able to to perform a query with just the range keys. Type id (string field) to use as a partition key and do not specify a sort key. DynamoDB is very easy to get started with, with a table name and a partition key you are on your way to data fun. Study 77 DynamoDB flashcards from Matt L. The DynamoDB Modeler supports queries defined in the UI, JSON sample data and/or formatted query specifications loaded from a JSON file. Athena is easy to use. Amazon DynamoDB indexes. In some cases, you might supply only a partition key as the primary key when creating a table. Though it is highly performant for these use cases, DynamoDB is not a good choice for analytical queries which typically involve large range scans and complex operations such as grouping and aggregation. Upon completion of this lab you will be able to:. Scaling on DynamoDB. I am always impressed by the flexibility of Amazon DynamoDB, providing our customers a fully-managed key-value and document database that can easily scale from a few requests per month to millions of requests per second. This is efficient because the query is directed to the one node that manages all items having the specified partition key. Queries can only be done in a single partition. That means increasing the RCU (we are doing too many query operations) will probably not. DynamoDB - Querying - Queries locate items or secondary indices through primary keys. Secondary indexes allow you to specify alternate key structures which can be used in Query or Scan operations (but not GetItem operations). This is because movies need to be able to query songs through movie_id, and in DynamoDB, it's possible to query through either the partition key or indexes. One can build indexes but there is a cost associated with it. How to put data in AWS Kinesis Stream. DynamoDB CLI Commands Scan. That would be an example of a query for a local secondary index. You can query any table or secondary index that has a composite primary key (a partition key and a sort key). All items with the same partition key are. You can inject your DynamoDBClient with custom configuration here. Amazon DynamoDB Training - Onsite, Instructor-led DynamoDB Database Development and DevOps Training for DevOps, Architects and Developers. Join Coursera for free and transform your career with degrees, certificates, Specializations, & MOOCs in data science, computer science, business, and dozens of other topics. There is no installation of AWS DynamoDB since AWS DynamoDB is one of AWS service. Change in the table throughput results in creation or deletion of partitions. Words reserved in DynamoDB can not be used without special processing. QueryRequest returns a request value for making API operation for Amazon DynamoDB. Leave the Use default settings box selected and press Create to create the table. If your table's primary key is made of only a partition key, then the Query operation is not supported. The college-id item will the primary partition key and data type of number. The Query operation finds items based on primary key values. DynamoDB uses the partition key as an input to an internal hash function in which the result determines which partition the item will be stored in. Unless I'm misunderstanding your question, you are not able to to perform a query with just the range keys. DynamoDB CLI Commands Scan. Query: Lets you fetch records based on the Partition Key and the Hash Key of the Primary or Secondary Indexes. It requires specifying the partition key value, with the sort key as optional. Warning #1: S3 Consistency model. NET Developers using a combination of Hash Key and Range Key will optimize the query performance. This allows Query to retrieve one item with a given partition key value and sort key value, or several items that have the same partition key value but different sort key values. But because hash keys always map to a single virtual node in a partition, a large set of range keys per hash key can lead to hot-key problems. : The table setup is very easy through the user-friend DynamoDB management console, AWS CLI command or AWS API. You can query any table or secondary index that has a composite primary key (a partition key and a sort key). Watch courses on your mobile device without an internet. They just serve different purposes. It does not have a sort key as part of its primary key. js Part 2 July 20, 2016 July 27, 2016 ~ Emmanouil Gkatziouras On a previous post we had the chance to issue some basic DynamoDB query actions. For each unique partition key value, the item gets assigned to a. If you are looking for the support documentation for our other DynamoDB component, DynamoDB Load, click here. Query by range-key requires the same setup as required for querying by the hash-key(Artist) 3. True, It is optional to re-partition by yourself or automatically. Upon completion of this lab you will be able to:. This is done by the use of partition keys and sort keys that are defined on the table to perform the filter. Find items in table using only partition key attribute values Must provide partition attribute name and a distinct value to search for Optionally provide a sort key attribute name and value Returns all attributes by default; use ProjectionExpression parameter to return selected attributes. WE can use the query method to retrieve data from a table. 5) C – The query is for a particular CustomerID, so a Global Secondary Index is needed for a different partition key. The database can also be accessed using SQL as an external table from within a. The Query operation will return all of the items from the table or index with that partition key value. Key and boto3. False, the table size is fixed and you cannot re-partition it. DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database provided by AWS that is optimized for point lookups and small range scans using a partition key. Interestingly, items without an orderId are not part of this index, so I get only 4 of the 6 items that are part of my sample data. Partition key and sort key- It is referred to as a composite primary key, this type of key is composed of two attributes. A single attribute partition primary key could be, for example, ^UserID _. A composite primary key composed of two attributes. You can also set has a string or binary. [/jbox] you can simply change the parameters. One can build indexes but there is a cost associated with it. For each unique partition key value, the item gets assigned to a. Document stores allow you to data in a structured way common. Explanation: In DynamoDB, a secondary index is a data structure that contains a subset of attributes from a table, along with an alternate key to support Query operations. You can use the query method to retrieve data from a table. Find a host’s matches without an opponent. … Suppose I want to query game stats … for a specific date range. Both the partition key and the sort key are capped at 1 field. think of it this way: without a tournament. Table is employee where emo_Id is the Partition key. Type id (string field) to use as a partition key and do not specify a sort key. The partition is selected by hashing the Partition Key; Indexes. The table below highlights some other critical differences between the feature sets: These are some key differences between DocumentDB and DynamoDB. This choice. A local secondary index features the same partition key as the original table, but a different sort key. Yes, you can use range-key as GSI. A Cloud Guru — Why Amazon DynamoDB isn't for everyone and how to decide when it's for you. Instead, items can be fetched from a DynamoDB table by the primary key of the table, or the key. : The table setup is very easy through the user-friend DynamoDB management console, AWS CLI command or AWS API. You will also figure out how to add, edit, query, export, and delete table data using the AWS Management Console. You can query any table or secondary index that has a composite primary key (a partition key and a sort key). Details can be found here. Partition Key Mandatory Key-value access pattern Determines data distribution Optional Model 1:N relationships Enables rich query capabilities DynamoDB table A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A3 A4 A7 A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A6 A4 A5 A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A1 (partition key) A2 (sort key) A3 A4 A5 SortKey Table Items 10. The way you can do this is to use ProjectionExpression to get only the partition key (or partition and sort keys). In this lesson, we'll discuss the two types of secondary indexes, and we'll cover some basic rules for working with secondary indexes. In this section we will fully exploring building for DynamoDB using JSF Architect. b) Composite Primary Key: A composite primary key is also known as the Partition key and Sort key. Major categories in which data types fall into three major categories are – Scalar, Set, or Document. So trying to implement the functionality as designed by the original code which used SQL ran into the ground quite quickly. Secondary Index A secondary index can be understood as the attribute that lets you query the data, with or without the help of a Primary key. A primary key can either be a single-attribute partition key or a composite partition-sort key. A DynamoDB table - if you don't, see more on tables in the documentation. AWS DynamoDB facts and summaries, AWS DynamoDB Top 10 Questions and Answers Dump. Query DynamoDB Items with Node. Both the primary partition key and sort key must be passed to DynamoDB to retrieve the requested record. We must specify a partition key value but the sort key is optional. DynamoDB supports two kinds of secondary indexes: Global secondary index – An index with a partition key and sort key that can be different from those on the table. You construct a table which uses a customer ID as partition key. DynamoDB provides fast access to items in a table by specifying primary key values. You need to pass the Partition Key, a single value for that Partition Key, and optionally the Range Key with normal comparison operators (such as =, >, and <) if you want to further narrow down the results. The condition can optionally perform one of several comparison tests on a single sort key value. After a point of time, we put 10 more items into the table. If the sort key doesn't appear in every table item, the index is said to be sparse.